Samsun Web Tasarim Polis malzemeleri Samsun ilaçlama Samsun çilingir farmasi üye ol Farmasi katalog Samsun atakum çilingir farmasi direktör Farmasi üye ol hacklink hacklink

Future of Internationalization of Higher Education (“HE”): Quo Vadis?
Ngày đăng 12/07/2017, 22:58

On July 7th 2016, at summer night party of Engaging Vietnam event in Quy Nhon (Vietnam), group of well-known sciences (physics and math) discussed about the post-Brexit with the internationalization of higher education across Europe.  No one knew what will happen.

On November 8th, 2016, at very late of the night, one of leading experts in international education in the US tweeted “What is happening with the world?” 

After these days, key question “What will be the trends of HE internationalization in future?”  has not yet been examined clearly.

As an international educator based in Vietnam, an active country in Asia and in the current international trade partnerships, I am of following self-observations that, in my views, we might call as ‘current trends” in internationalization of HE which will impact directly to our future of internationalization.

1.Internationalization of HE post- Brexit, 2016 US election  and many other crisis around the world

With the post-Brexit and 2016 US election, most leading international educators predict that there will be no significant progress for internationalization of HE [1] [2], because of “nationalism” from leaders of key countries hosting international students and international education.  

EU applications to UK downed 9% after Brexit vote [3].   Similarly, according to the survey done by  Study Portal, “57% international students say they are less likely to study in the US before the US election results” [4], even though 64% of responses of the postelection survey showed that US is still the top destination for international students [4a].   For EU, Brexit is not only matter for slowing down international student mobility, but also a huge other reasons such as attack and/or political-insecurity (in France, Germany, Belgium, Italy) and increasing tuition fees in most of European countries [5], including Germany where people used to be keen on free-college for all (international students) [6, 6a, 6b].

Looking at Asia, specifically Singapore, Malaysia, China or India where were named as emerging international education hubs/markets in recent years, there are very clear reasons of downsizing economy and political issues shall be limited their growth potential of international education, even though people still refer to China as a good market to dig out further.  

For Africa and Latin America, to well prepare for the disengagement of US post- election’ policy,  it was quite obvious at 2016 November APEC’ meetings in Peru that China is ready to replace the US’ role for globalization [7], not only in social economics, but also science, technology and higher education [8].  Everywhere people look for a new set-up or alternative partnerships to ensure that they might attend and play their roles in new “global contract” [8] [8a].
2.Internationalization of HE shall be focusing on TNE (transnational education/cross-border education), including international curriculum via MOOCs? A view from Asian national levels

Recently, the C-BERT reported the number of 250 international branch campuses (“IBCs) of universities over the world, locating most in Asian countries such as China (32 IBCs), Singapore (12 IBCs), Malaysia (12 IBCs) and United Arab (32 IBCs), and Quatar (11 IBCs) [9].  IBCs were developed and extended from 5 top home countries: US (51), UK (28), Russia (13), France (13) and Australia (10) with more than 180,000 students enrolled in 247 IBCs around the world [9].

Parallel TNE and cross-border international campuses, English full programs have been increased sharply in European countries, Asia (China, India, South Korea, Singapore), Africa (South Africa) [1].  All these countries are in the effort to become “educational hubs” to attract more international students and international faculty to do long-term and/or short-term exchanges.  In this trend, Europe and Asia are two big players that might consider as “competitors” to US and UK.

To foresee the future trends of international education, it sounds convincingly for The Pie Weekly to say that “future of international education exports in the UK is TNE and online education will be a huge part of that” [10].  The online education trends initiated and led by the US that UK and Europe actively join in the allies of world-wide digital learning [11].  University of Oxford announced their partnership with edX (US) for their first MOOCs to be taught in February 2017 to catch up “Digital Education Strategy” might be considered as a good example of the trend of cooperation between US and UK for internationalization via distance learning [12].

The good markets for distance learning (virtual learning/e-learning), again, for MOOCs hosted by US, UK and European universities, are China, Asia and Africa, including the domestic students in the US and the rest of the world.  Under The Pie News’ estimate [13], “Chinese MOOC learners is set to exceed 10 million by the end of 2016, up from 1.5 million just two (2) years ago”, while “90% of China colleges and universities are not ready to begin to develop MOOCs”.  And interestingly, one of findings from MOOC’ Chinese learners that they made decision to attend online learning based on “quality of curriculum”.

Not only China, India, Phillippine, Indonesia, and very new comers, Vietnam, African countries also join in the list of countries promoting distance learning programs, either developed by domestic or overseas providers [14] [15].
3.Internationalization of HE shall be MOOCs?
When we compare the number of 180,000 students enrolled in IBCs within 10 years around the world [9], roughly 5,7 million post-secondary distance learners in the US (in 2014) [16], with 10 million learners in China within 2 years, we must agree with Simon Nelson/Future Learn that “online education is now a global market” [17].  Not only in the US, but also in Asia and in Africa, students have been deeply attracted by online learning by their lower tuition fees [15], by their convenience for working people, flexibility, student enrichments [18].

Taking serious considerations for online learning (or MOOCs), the high quality of global university might cost next to nothing [19], according to Shai Reshef – President of University of the People.  This university has 6,000 students in IT, business management and health sciences.  According to Reshef, online programs help "university is accessible to all"

Adding to the free-tuition university accredited in the US, edX and a lot of free – online MOOCs providers have aggressively developed and promoted world-wide online short professional courses and got millions of learners over the world.

Based on the attraction of online learning, huge US, UK and European universities jointly develop online courses to sell for the world, even though the investment on the online courses are not cheap and not all faculty support this learning style. That is the reason I must raise the question whether the future of 21st century higher education and its internationalization are all MOOCs?

In light of the above facts in our international education situation, following are key matters for internationalization that I thought they will impact to our short-term and long-term future:

  1. Ethics in international education:

International education works out based on key principles of openness, cooperation, diversity and inclusiveness.  These values have yet been welcomed specifically in foreign affairs and international trade statements of (future) leaders in US and UK recently.  As a consequence, ethics will be the key challenge for international education in near future, when the principles and values of international education are in opposite to the nationalism and protectionism leaderships.

Two examples I want to view under ethical lens:

We have been recently reported by Reuters about New Oriental accused application fraud filling to top US ranking universities in more than 10 years [20]. In this investigation, it is interestingly that why New Oriental have been passed AIRC’agency accreditation till 2018? Why admission officers of US universities agreed to join in the tours with sponsorship from agencies? We are now complaining the fraud, New Oriental and admission officers, but why the wrong can last so long? Is it ethical review process for admission officers, for universities representatives, for AIRC? or because of benefits that Chinese students might bring to our US universities, we must “close eyes” for a long time?

Another fraud case that we all learned that post-election, Trump agreed to settle $25 million for his fraud estate programs and Trump university violation of state education laws [21].  How we can expect to strictly maintain and devote for ethical principles in international education, while our national leaders also had the fraud problem with his university? Business-minded shall influence over any our activity for internationalization, despite the principles of public good of university, transparency, integrity of any information university provides to students and any 3rd party [21a]?

Honestly, I do not have my own answers to these questions. 

  1. “Money” and “politics” influence strongly on international cooperation under China’ call

With two above referred examples of fraud, it is quite obvious for “money” power in our university system, including international education and cooperation.  

More importantly, post-Brexit and US election, at APEC 2016 – Peru and some other international events, people realized clearly that not only “money”, science, technology and higher education cooperation have been well combined together with economic influences under China’ call [7, 8, 8a].  In Africa, China agreed to provide 30,000 scholarships for African students to study in China, and as China and India has their 30 million students enrolled in each country respectively, US joint partnerships in Africa are “unimportant” [8].  China also has an ambitious target to attract 500,000 international students studying in China and their IBCs in 2020 [22]. 

It seems reasonably that Altbach and de Wit viewed we are (temporarily) at “end of American internationalism” [1], and a rise of “new global China hubs”, when most countries walk closely with China for “new global contract” and while the US and China relationship is unpredictable under the new administration.

  1. MOOCs: less-cost, earning-more (of larger scale) and questionable quality?

While global high-quality university cost next to nothing [19], the question for MOOCs is why do huge universities invest in MOOCs, for whom and how they keep high-quality for learning outcomes?

From the reports done by the US Department of Education, evidence for distance learning’ quality is “thin” and “limited findings” for K-12 [23], and not yet examined clearly by Columbia University for postsecondary programs [24].  For online students surveyed by Columbia [24], the status of “We need to continue to understand what pedagogy, features, and supports lead to greater student success and encourage more of those practices – whether online or off” means that a lot of study and research should be done to improve the online learning.

However and (un)fortunately, as it had been seen the big number of 10 million of Chinese online learners increased within 2 years, sounds a “world war” to gain the MOOCs students, besides the international student mobility and other traditional international education.  

For example, Facebook campaigned for Free Basis Internet in India and Africa [25] is the great chance to promote for Indian and African people for internet access, and then, hopefully, free online opportunities.  Even though India rejected Facebook initiatives because of net neutrality, Africa with 22 countries and 635 million population is the great market for internet, facebook awareness and online learning (via facebook, if any) [25a].  I might have no doubt for Facebook’ willing to provide free internet access for African and Indian people to improve their ability, their chance to connect with Facebook’ community over the world.  However, again, at APEC 2016 in Peru, one announcement from Facebook to China’ President in relation to “develop a censorship tool” to restrict contents from appearing in feeds, to re-enter the Chinese market [26], after seven (7) years of ban in China.  It is quite interesting to all readers of NYT [26a] that “Facebook might willing to compromise one of its core mission statements, “to make the world more open and connected”, to gain access to a market of 1,4 billion Chinese people”.

Again, this might consider as the compromising for business, however, in one perspective, this is also considered as the ethics of America company doing business, as everyone know that the US promote democracy, human rights and freedom of press.  Again, how we can believe that free basis internet is free and free-tuition online is free?

[1] Altbach, P, & Wit, Han.  (Nov, 11, 2016).  Now we face the (temporary?)  end of American internationalizism.   Universities World News.   Retrieved
[2] Choudaha, R.  (Nov, 9, 2016).   Politics in UK and US will not be welcomed international students. Times Higher Education.   Retrieved
[3] UCAS.  EU applications down 9% to the UK after Brexit vote.  Retrieved
[4] Marsh, N.  (Nov 23, 2016).  Trump will turn off 57% of int’l students.   The Pie News.   Retrieved
[4a] US still top destination for international students.  (December 2016).  Times Higher Education. Retrieved
[5] Myklebust, P. (October 29, 2015).  Universities set to charge fees for foreign students.  Universities World News.   Retrieved
[6] Oltermann P.  (June 4th, 2016).  Germany axed tuition fees – but is it working out?  The Guardian.   Retrieved
[6] Pells, R.  (December 3, 2016).  German universities to reintroduce tuition fees for non-EU students.  Independent.  Retrieved
[6] Study in Germany.  (Dember 3, 2016).   Germany will reintroduce tuition fees for all non-EU students.  Retrieved
[7] Lehmacher, W.  (November 22, 2016).  Why China could lead the next phase of globalization.  World Economic Forum.  Retrieved
[8] Tefera, D.   (December 2, 2016).  HE and the dawn of a new Marshall Plan for Africa.  Universities World News.   Retrieved
[8 a] Quigley, J. & Shi, T.  (November 19, 2016).  China’ Xi pledges open trade despite Trump protectionism.  Bloomberg.  Retrieved
[9] Redden, E.  (October 18, 2016).  Number of IBCs hits 250.  Inside Highered.  Retrieved
[9] C-BERT.  (November 9, 2016).  Quick Facts.  Retrieved
[10] Custer, S.  (November, 2016).  Summary.  The Pie Weekly.  Retrieved (the future for international education exports in the UK is TNE and online education will be a huge part of that)
[11] Custer, S.  (November 2016).  Summary.  The Pie Weekly.  Retrieved (Cambridge Education Group has just announced another UK partner for its online learning division, CEG Digita)
[12] University of Oxford.  (November 15, 2016).  University of Oxford launches partnership with edX and its first MOOC. Retrieved
[13] Smith, B.   (November 30, 2016).  Chinese MOOC learners to top 10 million by year end.  The Pie News.  Retrieved
[14] India: Swayam: Inside India’ Massive Bet on MOOCs.  Retrieved
[14] India: MOOC List. Retrieved
[14] Phillippine: Alison. Retrieved
[15] Africa: NHANDO, D.  (November 27, 2015).  Why e-learning is key to democraticizing higher education in Africa?  Elearning Industry.  Retrieved
[16] NCES.  (2016).  Fast Facts Distance Learning. National Center of Education Statistics.  Retrieved
[17] Young, J.  (November 5, 2016).  Online education is now a global market.  The Chronicle of Higher Education.  Retrieved
[18] Aspillara, M. ( August 5th, 2010).  What are the potential benefits of online learning?.  WorldwideLearn.  Retrieved
[19] Dodd, T.  (November 19, 2016). The high quality of global university which costs next to nothing. Financial Review.  Retrieved

[20] Marsh, N.  (December 5, 2016). China’s New Oriental accused of US application fraud. The Pie News. Retrieved

[21] Helderman, R. (November 18, 2016). Trump agrees to $25 million settlement in Trump University fraud cases. Washington Post. Retrieved
[21a] Daso, F.  (December 1, 2016).  Higher education is the new big business. Linkedin.  Retrieved
[22] ICEF.  (February 2, 2016).  China opens up work rights for foreign students. ICEF.  Retrieved
[23] Herold, B.  (October 18, 2016).  Personalized Learning: What does research say?  Education Week.
[24] Lederman, D.  (February 25, 2013).  Who benefits from online ed?   Inside Highered.  Retrieved
[25] Whittington, G.  (August 4th, 2016).  Facebook looks Africa next free internet project.  TriplePundit.  Retrieved
[25a] Shearlaw, M.  (August 1st, 2016).  Facebook lures Africa with free internet – but what is the hidden cost?  The Guardian.  Retrieved
[26] Wang, X.  (November 24, 2016).  Doing business the Chinese way: Facebook develops censorship tool.  Forbes.  Retrieved

[26a] Isaac, M.  (November 22, 2016).  Facebook said to create censorship tool to get back into China.  New York Times.  Retrieved


Bài viết bạn có thể quan tâm
Tin tức nổi bật
Học “bảo vệ” bản thân thế nào trong thời đại IoT?
Học “bảo vệ” bản thân thế nào trong thời đại IoT?
Nợ và Tương lai của Giáo dục Thế kỷ 21
Nợ và Tương lai của Giáo dục Thế kỷ 21
Impacts of library and self-learning by VEF and FETP students to complete programs
Impacts of library and self-learning by VEF and FETP students to complete programs
Chống lại “cái chết” do internet và mạng xã hội ở Việt nam
Chống lại “cái chết” do internet và mạng xã hội ở Việt nam
Chia sẻ nổi bật